Chronology 1800-1920:
Chronology of Goldbergs, Rosenbergs & Diamonds in London & Poland, within context of international events

COLOUR KEY:
• Politics, People, International
• London events
Family events

Regional Historical Summary pre-1900

The earliest known ancestors on the paternal side of the Graham family are now known to have come from Poland in the early 1800s. They left many years before the greater majority of migrants in the later 1800s who were either persecuted or may have just been seeking better prospects. We may never know. A very brief look at the history, customs and political state of that period and geographical area may allow us to draw some conclusions about how the relevant families (particularly Goldberg, Rosenberg, Reubenstein /Rogenstein) came to be uprooted and found their way across the water.

(i) Names and geography
Two main events make the tracing of families in Eastern Europe more difficult. Until the late 1600s the general peasant population of this region didn't really have surnames. They had used nicknames to identify individuals with the same first name but they were specific to one person and weren't passsed from one generation to the next until the first half of the 1700s in western Poland, and then later in the east.

Until the early 19th century most of the Jews from countries captured by Napoleon, including Russia, Poland and Germany, were ordered to get surnames for tax and military conscription purposes. Then after Napoleon's defeat many dropped these names and returned to "son of" names (eg: Mendelsohn, Jacobson, Levinson). Then again they were once more ordered to take surnames: in Austria (late 1700s), in Poland (1821), and in Russia (1844).

 "Jews in the 1800s in Eastern Europe were generally not really attached to their last names - they didn't use it among themselves.  And they tried to avoid the draft in Russia by 'fiddling around', having baby boys registered as belonging to another family which had no sons, and doing other things to make it hard for Russia.  It was also not uncommon when the couple was not allowed to marry civilly that a couple would marry religiously and the babies would be considered 'illegitimate' by the government and have the Mother's surname (the Father was not her husband according to the government."  From a posting to JewishGen by Sally Bruckheimer on 4//3/02.

People were generally required to pay if they were to have a choice of name, while the poor were simply assigned names. Names can be categorised in five general types:
• Descriptions of the Head Of Household - eg: Hoch [tall], Klein [small], Cohen [rabbi], Shein [attractive],
• Descriptions related to Occupations - eg: Holtz [wood], Schneider [tailor], Fisher [fish], Goldschmidt [goldsmith], Diamant [diamond]
Cities Of Residence or Country Of Origin - eg: Berlin, Frankfurter, Pollack [Polish], Deutsch [German],
Bought names - eg: Gluck [luck], Koenig [king], Rosenberg [rose mountain], Goldberg [gold mountain]

Assigned names (usually undesirable, therefore quickly dropped by later generations) - eg: Plotz [to die], Klutz [clumsy], Billig [cheap].
Other name derivations such as the famous Rothschild name were simply related to some other way of identifying the family; in this instance it was a description of the 'Rot Schild' [the red coloured shield], the plate on the front of houses identifying Jews' residences.

Right up to about 1850 surnames were often modified within families but by that time Jews specifically were obliged to use inherited surnames instead of traditional patronyms - a common custom within that community. This may explain the Reubenstein /Rogenstein variation which became evident during the research on this family. Secondly the area changed hands several times from the 1700s; from Polish sovereignty to Prussian, to Napoleonic France, back to Prussian - at which time the families researched here emigrated. Consequently many records no longer exist.

(ii) Racial origins to 1300
Originally merchants from Babylon, Persia and the Caucasus had crossed through the Slavic lands of Eastern Europe in search of markets in the West and had stayed for months and years. Examples have been found of craftsmen who minted coins for local authorities, who handled the slave trade, or dealt in connection with trade in amber or furs, but largely these people did not settle permanently. The migration of Jewish born families to Great Poland started around the 11th century as they fled persecution by Crusaders in Bohemia, specifically in 1098.

Archaeological evidence exists of Jewish merchants being in Poland - coins with Hebrew inscriptions reveal Jewish traders in the 12th century travelling to Russia. Later periods of migration followed anti-Semitic outbursts in Germany from the 1100s though to the 1400s. Larger numbers of Jewish settlers came in the early 1200s, establishing settlements in the western part of Poland. In this period Poland was a haven for Jews as its government granted self-government to an extent unheard of anywhere else in Europe. Poland suffered great losses from Mongol invasions in 1241 and therefore encouraged Jewish immigrants to settle the towns and villages. Immigrants flocked to Poland from Bohemia-Moravia, Germany, Italy, Spain and colonies in the Crimea including Seljuk (and later Ottoman) Turkey. No central authority could stop this immigration. Refugees from Germany brought with them German and Hebrew dialects that eventually became Yiddish. In 1264 the Statute of Kalisz was issued by Prince Boleslaw giving protection to Jews, guaranteeing rights to become moneylenders and businessmen, freedom of worship and assembly, and Jewish elders the power to settle both civil and criminal disputes in their own communities. This angered Christian church authorities and in 1267 the papal legate convened a synod in Breslau seeking to bring about strict separation between Polish Christians and Jews, imposing rules requiring that Jews wear special headgear and the infamous badge, prohibiting them from holding public office and so on. In fact these resolutions had no practical effect.

During that time, the Church in Poland had not yet managed to become firmly established, and therefore strongly opposed any social or personal relations between the local populace and the Jews who, upon arriving in Poland, had set up small workshops and businesses. In these they employed local Slavic slaves who aided them in developing their enterprises. The Jews were mostly single men from Jewish centres in western and southern Europe who quite naturally wanted to establish families.
 
After seven years, by Jewish law, they were required to free their slaves, so often the owner, when his female slave continued working with him after her release, proposed that she remain with him as his wife. She would undertake the management of the household as an equal partner - all on condition that she convert to Judaism. This could also explain the Slavic cast which often manifests itself on the faces of Jews from this region. That practice also aroused the anger of the church authorities.

(iii) 1300-1500
In the 1300s opposition arose to the system where Jews owned land used as collateral for loans. By the middle of the century hatred of the Jews existed among the nobility and around 1348 Jews throughout Poland were massacred because they were blamed for spreading the Black Death by deliberately poisoning wells. Other myths arose out of this hatred, including the notorious blood libel which accused Jews of killing babies to use their blood in the making of matzos. This particular story was perpetuated right through to the present day and indeed in Leczyca (birthplace of my ancestor Lewis Rosenberg, born c.1837). In the Australia Jewish News of Friday, April 14th, 1989, the historian Isaiah Taub wrote:
"I was a guide for the Jewish Agricultural Society in Warsaw and I was leading a group of Jewish tourists through the old historic city of Leczyca. Among the old remarkable buildings that we visited was an old church. Built into the walls on the inside of the church were coffins containing the remains of Catholic saints and martyrs. Among the latter we noticed in one niche, behind glass, the skeleton of a young child. The inscription in gold letters said, 'Here rest the remains of a Christian child whom the Jews killed for Passover and used his blood for baking matzos.' We left that place numb, speechless and depressed."

During the 1300s and 1400s Jews were active in all areas of trade, including cloth, horses and cattle. By the end of the 1400s Polish Jews began trading with Venice, Feodosiya and other Genoese colonies in the Crimea as well as with Constantinople. Accusations were made against the Jews claiming unfair competition in trade and crafts and as a result in 1485 they were finally forced to renounce their rights to most of this type of work. There were anti-Jewish riots in 1348-9 and again in 1407 and 1494 and Jews were expelled from Cracow in 1495.

Poland map c.1370
Polish region c.1370

(iv) 1500-1700
By the middle of the 1500s 80% of the world's Jews lived in Poland and Jewish religious life thrived in many Polish communities. In 1503 the Polish monarchy appointed an official Rabbi of Poland, and 50 years later Jews were given the power to elect one of their own choice. The Chief Rabbinate had power over law and finance, sharing power with local councils. The Rabbinate collected taxes, 30% of which was used for Jewish causes while 70% was given to the Crown for protection.

In 1569 Poland and Lithuania unified and Poland then annexed the Ukraine, sending many Jews to colonise these territories. Polish nobility and landowners and Jewish merchants became partners in many business enterprises. Jews became involved in the wheat export industry, which was in high demand across Europe. They built and ran mills and distilleries, transported the grain to the Baltic Ports and shipped it to the West. In return they received wine, cloth, dyes and luxury goods, which they sold to Polish nobility. The roles of magnates, middleman and intermediaries with the peasants were held by the Jews. In the process they created entire villages and townships known as shtetls. Fifty-two communities thrived in Great Poland and Masovia, 41 communities in Lesser Poland and about 80 communities in the Ukraine region.

Poland was also one of the first countries to develop a parliamentary system of government and a separate Jewish legislature (the Va'ad Arba Artsot /Council of Four) was founded in 1581. The "four" lands were Great Poland (Wielkopolska), Little Poland, Podolia and Galicia. Jews were active at all levels of society and politics - almost every Polish magnate had a Jewish counsellor who kept the books, wrote letters and managed economic affairs. Alongside the VAA was the Supreme Rabbinic Tribunal which met while the VAA was in session, hearing appeals from its regional Jewish tribunals. This lasted until 1764 when it was dissolved by the Sejm (Polish national parliament).

In 1648, a Ukrainian officer Bogdan Chmielnicki, with the support of the Tatar Khan of Crimea, roused the local peasants to fight with him and the Russian Orthodox Cossacks against the Jews. The first wave of violence in 1648 destroyed Jewish communities east of the Dnieper River. Following the violence, thousands of Jews fled west, across the river, to the major cities. The Cossacks and the peasants followed them; the first large-scale massacre took place at Nemirov (a small town, which is part of present-day Ukraine). It is estimated that 100,000-200,000 Jews died in the Chmielnicki revolt that lasted from 1648-1649. This wave of destruction is considered the first modern pogrom.

Poland map c.1634
Polish region c.1634

The revolts left much of the Jewish population impoverished. In the 1660's, many Polish Jews became caught up in the fervour and excitement of Shabbetai Zevi and Jacob Frank. According to Hasidic tradition, in southeast Poland, in the region of Podolia, Israel ben Eliezer Ba’al Shem Tov (otherwise known as the Ba’al Shem Tov or Besht) was born in 1699. It was said that he was a Ba’al Shem (miracle worker), curing Jews with amulets and charms. The Ba’al Shem Tov reached out to the masses and peasant Jewry. Hasidism flourished after his death and was spread by Rabbi Dov Baer, the Maggid (storyteller) throughout Eastern Europe.

At the end of the 1600's, Poland-Lithuania was involved in a war against Sweden and another war against Moscow. In 1697 the Elector of Saxony, Augustus, was elected King. From 1700 - 1721, Augustus II allied himself with Russia and became involved in war with Sweden for control of the Baltic (the Great Northern War). Poland became a battlefield and the Polish throne the prize. The wars weakened Poland’s food-exporting industries and strained the Polish nobility, who then put pressure on the Jews and raised tariffs. In turn, the Jews put pressure on the local peasants. In 1704 Sweden won, Augustus was removed and the Voivode of Poznan, Stanislaw Leszczynski, was elected in his place. In 1709 the Russians defeated the Swedes at Poltava and Augustus was returned to the throne.

(vi) 1700-1900
Conflict between Augustus and the Sejm almost ended in civil war in 1717, only prevented by a Russian offer of mediation; 18,000 Russian troops surrounded the chamber where the deputies met, they were denied the right to speak while the Russian mediator dictated the Russian solution. This Sejm became known as the Dumb Sejm and the Republic became little more than a Russian client state; this was the start of the Russian Protectorate in which Poland was forced to reduce her standing army. On Augustus' death, in 1733, Leszczynski was again elected King but the Russians interfered by sending in an army and re-running the election; Augustus' son, Frederick Augustus, was elected. The sixty-six years of Saxon rule, from 1697 - 1763, were a national disaster and drove the country to the brink of anarchy. Most ominous was the fact that in 1732 Russia, Prussia and Austria had entered into a secret alliance to maintain the paralysis of law and order within Poland. This pact became known as the Alliance of the Three Black Eagles (since all three powers had a black eagle in their coat-of-arms). The reign of the magnate, Stanislaw August Poniatowski, 1764 - 1795, a favourite of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia, was totally controlled by Russia. Poniatowski was to become the last King of Poland. From 1768 - 1772, an anti-Russian rising known as the Confederation of Bar was crushed by the Russians. Over 5,000 captured szlachta were sent to Siberia. Among the few who escaped was Kazimierz Pulaski who was to play an important role in the United States' struggle for independence.

Taking advantage of a now weakened Poland, Prussia, Russia and Austria agreed to annex parts of the country between 1772 and 1795 - the so-called Partitions. The Commonwealth lost 733,000 sq.km (23%) of her former territory and 4,500,000 of her population. Prussia acquired the west including Greater Poland (the smallest but economically best area) while the southern most heavily populated territories around Krakow and Lwow became part of Austria, renamed Galicia, and the largest but least important central /eastern provinces became part of the Russian Empire. To give the crime some legality the Sejm was forced to ratify the partition in 1773, despite the resistance of some Deputies, led by Tadeusz Rejtan.

Poland-Lithuania now no longer existed and the majority of Poland's one million Jews became part of the Russian empire; Poland became a mere client state of that empire. In 1722 Catherine II, empress of Russia forced the Jews to stay in their shtetls and barred them from returning to the towns they had occupied before the partition. (This area was called the Pale of Settlement, which went on to have over four million Jews by 1885.) Despite the disaster of this first partition, Poland underwent a national revival in 1773, thanks to the efforts of Poniatowski. The first step was the creation of the Komisija Edukacji Narodowej (Committee of National Education), the first Ministry of Education in Europe. Hundreds of schools were founded and the standard of education was raised. Writers, poets, artists and scholars were encouraged by the King and the ideas of the Enlightenment were taking hold. This was the period of Adam Naruszewicz, the historian, Ignacy Krasicki, satirist and poet, Wojciech Boguslawski, "father" of the Polish theatre, and Franciszek Karpinski, whose hymns are still sung in Poland to this day.

Now taking advantage of Russia's involvement in a war against Turkey, the King launched a reform programme (1788-1792) and the task was carried out by the Four-Year or Great Sejm which established a new Constitution; the Constitution of the Third of May. Established in 1791, under this Constitution the liberum Veto was abolished and a majority rule introduced, and personal freedoms guaranteed to all the people. The Constitution was hailed in the United States, England and France, but was seen as a threat to the absolute rulers of Prussia, Austria and, especially, Russia. So, in 1792, at Russia's instigation a handful of magnates led by Ksawery Branicki, Szczesny Potocki and Seweryn Rzewuski betrayed the Commonwealth and formed the Confederation of Targowica against the new Constitution and then "asked" for help. Russian troops crossed the borders and war broke out. The King's nephew, Joseph Poniatowski and Tadeusz Kosciuszko, a veteran of the American War of Independence, put up heroic resistance but all hope faded away when the Prussians joined in, attacking the Polish armies in the rear. Many patriots were forced to flee.

In 1793 Russia and Prussia signed the Second Partition Treaty, seizing more than half the country and about four million more of the population. The last Sejm of the Commonwealth, which met at Grodno, was forced to legalise the partition and abolish most of the reforms of the Great Sejm. Popular discontent led to Insurrection, proclaimed by Kosciuszko (as Supreme Commander) in Krakow's Market Place on March 24th, 1794. Thousands of Poles rallied to the standard followed by a victory at Raclawice in which peasant scythbearers played an important role. The people of Warsaw, led by the cobbler Jan Kilinski, rose against and defeated the strongest Russian regiment in Poland. Berek Joselewicz commanded the first Jewish military formation since Biblical times. In May 7th, Kosciuszko issued the Polaniec Manifesto which abolished serfdom. Eventually, in October, the combined strength of Russia and Prussia defeated Kosciuszko's forces at Maciejowice (where he was captured) and, in November, Warsaw was taken by the Russians who slaughtered the population of the suburb, Praga, including women and children. Then, in 1795, the third partition wiped what was left of Poland off the map. The King was forced to abdicate and taken to St. Petersburg (where he died in 1798). Many captured Poles were sent to Siberia but thousands more escaped to Italy where, in 1797, they formed a Polish Legion, led by General Henryk Dabrowski, fighting for Napoleon Bonaparte against Austria. The Poles hoped that by fighting on the French side against the Powers that had partitioned Poland they could free their country. Dabrowski's Legion wore traditional uniforms which bore the motto: "All free men are Brothers!"

The Partitions c.1772-95
The Partitions c.1772-95

The Poles felt that one way of restoring independence was to fight for Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1791 Dabrowski organised two legions to fight the Austrians in Lombardy and, later, for the French in the Iberian Peninsula. Kniaziewicz organised the Polish Danube Legion to fight against the Germans in 1799. Napoleon used the Polish Legions in all his campaigns; against Russia, Austria and Prussia, in Egypt, in the West Indies (Santo Domingo), and in Spain (where they fought the British and inspired the formation of the English lancers equipped with Polish-style uniforms and weapons). Some of the Poles became very disillusioned with Bonaparte, realising that they were being manipulated. Later, in 1806, the French armies defeated the Prussians at Jena and entered Posen (Poznan) led by the Poles under Dabrowski. A year later Napoleon and the Tzar, Alexander, met at Tilsit and agreed to set up a Polish State made up of the lands the Prussians had taken in the second partition. This was the Duchy of Warsaw. Napoleon used the Duchy as a pawn in his political game and in 1812 called upon the Lithuanians to rebel as an excuse to attack Russia. The Poles, flocking to his standard in the hope of resurrecting the Commonwealth, formed the largest non-French contingent, 98,000 men. Polish Lancers were the first to cross the Niemen into Russia, the first to enter Moscow, played a crucial part in the battle of Borodino and, under Poniatowski, covered the disastrous French retreat, being the last out of Russia; 72,000 never returned.
Despite the cynical way that Napoleon treated the Poles they remained loyal to him and, when he went into exile on Elba the only guards that Napoleon was allowed were Polish Lancers.

When Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Central Europe he briefly restored Poland as a Duchy of Warsaw, consisting of the above-named Prussian and Austrian territories which they had annexed in 1793-95. This all changed again on Napoleon's defeat in 1815 when the victorious Russians took control of the Duchy of Warsaw. The ruling Tzars gave it autonomy, creating the new Kingdom of Poland (dependent on Russia) whereas Eastern Poland was directly incorporated into the Empire. These boundaries remained stable during the next century but the Polish provinces were slowly germanised under Prussian government as more Germans settled there.

During this time (approx 1700-1800) there was a period of Jewish Enlightenment known as Haskalah which spread throughout Poland, reforming Jewish life and encouraging assimilation between Poles and Jews in an effort to avoid persecution and to find prosperity. It was popular among wealthy Jews while shopkeepers and artisans chose to keep speaking Yiddish and practice orthodox Jewish faith. Then in the 1800s the Haskalah philosophy of integration began to be implemented by the Sejm (Senate). Jewish self-government, the Kahal, was abolished. A tax was levied on Jewish liquor dealers, forcing them to close their shops. Jews then became involved in agriculture. A yeshiva opened in 1826, with the goal of producing "enlightened" spiritual leaders.

Until the mid-1850s many Jewish boys were forcibly conscripted into the Russian army for 25 years' service where they faced considerable brutality and a high chance of death. Since Jews were treated badly by the Russians many decided to become involved in the Polish insurrections: the Kosciuszko Insurrection, November Insurrection (1830-1831), the January Insurrection (1863) and the Revolutionary Movement of 1905. Jews also joined Polish legions in the battle for independence achieved in 1918. In 1862, after the ancestors researched here had left Poland, Jews were emancipated and special taxes were abolished and restrictions on residence were removed. Despite efforts to assimilate, Jews continued to be subject to anti-Semitism under the Czars and across Poland.

In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna the Duchy was partitioned and a large part went to Russia. In Austria and Prussia there was repression of all Polish attempts to maintain the national culture, but in Russia, fortunately, the Tzar, Alexander I, was a liberal ruler who agreed to the setting up of a semi-autonomous Congress Kingdom with its own parliament and constitution. This became a time of peace and economic recovery. In 1817 the University of Warsaw was founded. But the accession of Tzar Nicholas I to the throne in 1825 saw the establishment of a more repressive regime. In 1830, after the revolution in France and unrest in Holland, Nicholas decided to intervene and suppress the move towards democracy in the West. He intended to use the Polish Army as an advanced force but instead propelled the Polish patriots into action. On the night of November 29th the cadets of the Warsaw Military College launched an insurrection. The Poles fought bravely against heavy odds in former Polish territories around Wilno, Volhynia and the borders of Austria and Prussia. The insurrection spread to Lithuania where it was led by a woman, Emilia Plater. For a while victory actually lay in their grasp but indecision on the part of the Polish leaders led to defeat. Warsaw was taken in September 1831, followed by terrible persecution; over 25,000 prisoners were sent to Siberia with their families and the Constitution of the Congress Kingdom was suspended. The 1830 Revolution inspired the work of two great Poles living in exile; Chopin, the composer, and Mickiewicz, the poet.

Several attempts were made by Poles to regain independence but all the uprisings against Russia, Prussia and Austria were bloodily suppressed, leading to the mass emigration of over a million people from Poland - mostly to North America - in the late 1870s-1900. The ancestors we are concerned with here had emigrated in the earlier part or middle of the 1800s...hopefully time will tell more exactly when.

Polish Region c.1880
Polish region c.1880
From 1795 until the end of WW1 Poland did not exist on the map of Europe

Much later, at the outbreak of WW1 in 1914 Poles found themselves conscripted into the armies of Germany, Austria and Russia, and forced to fight each other in a war that was not theirs. Although many Poles sympathised with France and Britain they found it hard to fight with them on the Russian side. They also had little sympathy with the Germans. Russia was considered the greater enemy and Polish Legions were formed to fight for Austria but independently. Other Galician Poles went to fight against the Italians when they entered the war in 1915, thus preventing any clash of conscience. Almost all the fighting on the Eastern Front took place on Polish soil.

All sides, from Tzar Nicholas of Russia to President Wilson (in his Fourteen Points) had promised the restoration of Poland yet in the end the Poles regained independence through their own actions when first Russia and then the Central Powers collapsed as a result of the War.
In 1918, on the 11th November, Pilsudski was released by the Germans, proclaimed Polish Independence and Became Head of State and Commander-in-Chief, with Paderewski as Prime Minister. An uprising liberated Poznan and, shortly after, Pomerania (which gave access to the Baltic). In the chaos that followed the collapse of the Powers new states had arisen; Lithuania, Czechoslovakia and the Ukrainian Republic. All these states laid claims on territory occupied by Poles. The Poles liberated Wilno from the Lithuanians in 1919, reoccupied the area around Cieszyn (which had been invaded by the Czechs) and annexed the Western Ukraine when the Ukrainian Republic, which had been supported by Poland, collapsed under attack from Soviet forces.

The Red Army, having crushed all counter-revolutionary forces inside Russia, now turned its attention on Poland. By August 1920 they were at the gates of Warsaw. On August 15th the Polish Army under Pilsudski, Haller and Sikorski fought the Battle of Warsaw (the "Miracle on the Vistula"), routed the Red Army and saved a weakened Europe from Soviet conquest. An Armistice was signed at Riga in October, followed by a Peace Treaty in March 1921 which determined and secured Poland's eastern frontiers. In 1922 part of Upper Silesia was awarded to Poland by a Geneva Convention following three uprisings by the Polish population who had been handed over to Germany at the Peace Treaty of Versailles.

On March 17th, 1921, a modern, democratic constitution was voted in. The task that lay ahead was difficult; the country was ruined economically and, after a hundred and twenty years of foreign rule, there was no tradition of civil service. Marshal Pilsudski resigned from office in 1922, and the newly-elected President, Gabriel Narutowicz, took office only to be assassinated a week later. Seeing that the government lacked power because of party strife, Pilsudski took control by a coup d'etat in 1926 and established the Sanacja regime intended to clean-up ("sanitise") political life. By 1930 this had become a virtual dictatorship. Poland successfully re-built its economy despite all its problems, but after constant oppression from Germany entered a military alliance with Britain and France...only to be invaded by Hitler's Germany late in 1939, which led to WW2.

 

Above information summarised and reproduced with reference to:
• Shmuel A. Athur Cygielman (trans. and additions by Norman Roth): Medieval Jewish Civilisation: An Encyclopedia (Routledge)
• Genealogy & Poland - A Guide: Polish Roots.org
• Rebecca Weiner - The Jewish Virtual Library
• David Rosenthal - Blighted Passover Days & Blood Libels

Moving Here - movinghere.org.uk
• Kasprzyk's Website - link

1807-15 • Semi-indep Duchy of Warsaw est by Napoleon, then abolished 1813, then re-partitioned by Congress of Vienna after Napoleon’s final defeat
1820-55 • Polish era of romanticism, of revolutionary and reform movements by poets, novelists and particularly the music of Frederyk Chopin
1828 • St Katherine’s Dock opens
• University College opens
1829 • Metropolitan Police founded by Sir Robert Peel
• Shillibeer’s Omnibus service begins (Paddington - Bank)

1830

• King George IV dies; his bro. King William IV succeeds
• Chopin (20y.o.) gives farewell concert in Warsaw Nat’l Theatre, before leaving for Austria just days before Warsaw uprising (Nov)
1830-31 • Polish Revolution: November Revolt against Russian rule in Congress K’dom of Poland fails, forcing 6,000 resistance fighters into exile in France, heralding harsh period of repression of intellectual and religious activity throughout Poland
1831 • Chloroform discovered
• The new London Bridge opens
1832 • Cholera epidemic
1833-4 Rebecca (Rivke Bina) Rubenstein /Rogenstein (later Goldberg) born Poland
1833 • Slavery abolished throughout British Empire
• 1st L’don Fire Establishment formed by insurance co’s
1834 • Houses of Parliament destroyed by fire
• Hansom cab patented
• Sir Robert Peel briefly becomes Prime Minister & Chancellor of Exchequer
• 1st form of refrigeration discovered
1835 • Sir Robert Peel resigned as Prime Minister
1836- Nathan Goldberg born Poland
• Phosphorous matches invented
• Massacre at Alamo, Texas
1836-48 • Chartist Movement
1837 • King William IV died; Queen Victoria (his neice) accedes at 18y.o
• Samuel Morse invents telegraph
1838 Lewis Rosenberg born Leczyca, Poland
• Regular Atlantic steamship service begins
1839 • Daguerreotype photo invented
1840 • Penny Post introduced
• Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert
• Antarctic discovered
• 1st wood-working machinery appeared

Miriam (surname unknown, later Diamond) born Warsaw (1840?)
1841 • Fire in Tower Of London
• Sir Robert Peel (Con) becomes PM again; ministers include Disraeli, Gladstone & Wellington
1842 Zyman Diamond born Warsaw (May)
• Railing raised on The Monument to prevent suicides
1843 • Nelson’s Column erected
• Thames Tunnel opened
• Fire at Topping’s Wharf, London Bridge

• 1st typewriter invented
1844 • Nitrous oxide 1st used as anaesthetic
• YMCA founded
1845 • Victoria Pk opens
• Hungerford Suspension Bridge opens
• Penny steam-boats from Adelphi to London Bridge

• Texas admitted to Union of US
• Irish potato famine triggers mass immigration to USA
1846 • Sir Robert Peel resigns as PM
• Lock-stitch sewing machine invented
• Suez Canal constr’n begins
• Polish uprising in Austrian zone of Partition fails
1847 • Chloroform 1st used in surgery
1848 • Waterloo Stn opens to replace Nine Elms as London terminus
1849 • Gold discovered in California (where Gold Rush begins) & Australia
• Harrod’s founded
• Cholera epidemic (L’don)
1850 • California admitted to US
• Paraffin created

• St Anne’s Limehouse destroyed by fire
(Mar)
1851 • Gt Exhibition opened in Hyde Pk., covering 21 acres (May); Marble Arch relocated there (from outside Buckingham Palace)
• UK population 21m
• Isaac Singer invents 1st comm’l sewing machine
1853-6 • Crimean War /Florence Nightingale
1854 • Re-erected Crystal Palace opens in Sydenham
• Paddington Stn opens

• 1st photo film roll
1854-5 Leah Diamond (Zyman's eldest ) born Warsaw
1855 By now Rebecca Goldberg (age 21-22), née Rubenstein /Rogenstein in England (per burial auth'n)
• Russia defeated in Crimea
• 1st UK daily paper (Daily Telegraph)

• The “Great Stink”
• 1st pillar box (Farringdon /Fleet Sts)
• Victoria Dock opens
1856 • L’don Gen Omnibus Co (LGOC) launched
• Safety matches invented
1857-8 Zyman had married Miriam
Isaac Diamond (Zyman's 2nd child) born Warsaw
1858 By now Lewis Rosenberg in England (via Berlin)
• Donati’s Comet first appeared
• Postal districts introduced in London

• 1st Atlantic cable laid
1859 Jane Goldstein born to Suchar & Leah, Saddlers Hall Ct., City of London (Nov)
• Metropolitan Free Drinking Fountain Ass’n founded
• Lord Palmerston becomes PM (Whig)
• Darwin’s ‘Origin Of Species’ published
• Lending libraries open
1860 Nathan Goldberg in London by now
• Garibaldi takes Naples & Italy unified
• 1st can opener
• Internal combustion engine & linoleum invented

• Victoria Station opens
• Big Ben chimes for 1st time
1860-1 Hannah (aka Annie) Goldberg (Nathan's eldest) born London, Bishopsgate
1861 • Hungerford Suspension Bridge replaced by Charing X R’way Bridge
• 1st horse-drawn tram experiments
• Tooley St fire

• Mrs Beeton’s bk of ‘Household Mgmt’ published
• Prince Albert dies of typhoid; Q.Victoria goes into permanent mourning
1861-5 • American Civil War
• Zyman Diamond in London by now
1862 • Lewis Rosenberg (25), tailor, 30 Cable St., married Esther Isaacs (25), Short St., Spitalfields at Gt Syn Chambers
• Lambeth and new W’minster Bridges open
• Peabody Trust established
• Agricultural Hall, Islington, opens

• Bismarck becomes Russian premier
1862-3 • Lewis Carroll writes & illustrates Alice In Wonderland
1863 • Rebecca and Nathan married by now
• Amelia Goldberg born at 1 Ebenezer Sq, City of London
(May)
• Russia defeated Polish uprising
• Gettysburg address

• Metropolitan Line (1st u’ground r’way) opens: Paddington - Farringdon, with steam trains
1863-4 • 2nd Polish Revolution: Jan. Insurrection in Russian sector of Poland fails, ending all its 19th c. uprisings against foreign domination
1864 • Charing X St’n opens
• Geneva Convention establishes Red Cross
• Chimney Sweep Act ended use of children
Morris Ruben born
1865 • Broad St - Dalston (N.L’don R’way) opens
• Pres. Lincoln assassinated
• 1st antiseptic surgery
1866 • Italy defeated by Austria
• Telegraph cable laid under Atlantic
• 1st torpedo invented
• Nobel creates dynamite
1867 • S.African diamond fields discovered
• 1st black males given right to vote in Washington DC
• Parl’ty Reform Act extended voting to more men
1868 Lewis Rosenberg (30), with 2 children, 6 Cable St, Outfitter, naturalisation (Feb)
• Last public execution outside Newgate Prison
• District Line opens (Sth Ken - W’minster)
• 1st traffic lights (Bridge St /Gt George St)

• Disraeli briefly becomes PM (Tory), then Gladstone (Lib)
• 1st plastics created
1869 Sarah Diamond born London (Jun)
Louis Goldberg born Spitalfields (Jul-Sep)
From unknown date up to 1878: Amelia at Jews Hospital School, Norwood, S. London
Miriam Diamond suffering heart disease
• Columbia Market opens
• New Cross - Wapping (E. L’don R’way) opens thru Thames Tunnel
• Holborn Viaduct opens
• 1st tarmac on city streets

• Suez Canal opens
• Union Pacific R’way completed in U.S.
1870 • Tramway opens, W’chapel to Bow
• Tower Subway opens
• Beckton Gas Works opens

• Charles Dickens dies
• 1st submarine

• Forster’s Elementary Ed’n Act establishes School Boards & compulsory ed’n for 5-10y.o
• Vatican Council est infallibility of Pope
Annie Rosenberg born (1870-72) to Lewis & Esther
1870-1 • Franco-Prussian War
1871

Zyman Diamond (wood turner) & Miriam at 9 Gascoigne Place, Bethnal Green (Apr)
Nathan Goldberg (bag-maker) & Rebecca at 9 Freeman Street, Spitalfields
Miriam died at Gascoigne Place of heart disease and pneumonia (Nov)
• Brick Lane extended northwards
• Hampstead Hth acquired for public use
• Diarrhoea epidemic
• RAH opens
• Albert & Wandsworth Bridges open

• Trade Unions legalised
• Germany unified
• 1st bank hols introduced, soon to become public

1871-2 Lewis Rosenberg (Outfitter) at 18 Cable St, Wellclose Sq
1872 Nathan Goldberg died at Freeman St. of consumption (Feb)
• Bethnal Green Museum opens
1873 Zyman (33?), Gt Synagogue, married widowed Mrs Rebecca Goldberg (39) (Aug)
• New Alexandra Palace opens & burns down after 16 days
• UK pop’n 26m; France 36m
• Remington begins typewriter manuf.
1874 Leah Diamond 1st admitted to Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum (Mar)
Mark Rosenberg born (1874-5) to Lewis & Esther
• Liverpool St Stn opens
• Disraeli becomes PM again
1875 • Smithfield Market opens
• Floating swimming bath opens at Hungerford Bridge
1876 • Albert Memorial unveiled
• Edison invents phonograph, microphone and gramophone
• Bell demonstrates telephone
• Light bulb invented
• Victoria named Empress of India
• Compulsory school attendance in Britain
1877 Sarah Diamond (7) admitted to Jews' Free School, Spitalfields (‘til 1882) (Mar)
Zyman in directory at 5 Club Row, Bethnal Green
• Temple Bar demolished
• A new Billingsgate Mkt opens

• Transvaal annexed
1878 Amelia Goldberg (15) admitted to JFS (‘til 1880); previously at ‘Norwood’ (Sep)
• Princess Alice steamboat disaster, N.Woolwich Pier - 640 die
• 1st electric lights
• Cleopatra’s Needle erected
1879 Leah Diamond died of consumption, Colney Hatch Asylum (Jul)
Zyman Diamond at Bateman's Row, Shoreditch

• Bethnal Green Rd extended to High St, across Zyman' s Club Row premises
• Zulu War
1880 Amelia Goldberg left JFS (Feb)
• Royal Albert Dock opens
• Gladstone PM again (Lib)
1881 Rebecca (as Diamond), with Amelia (17y.o. pupil teacher) & Louis Goldberg (11) at 65 Commercial St, Spitalfields (Apr)
• Electric street lights & 1st few houses supplied
• Disraeli died
1882 Zyman Diamond said to be in S. Africa
Sarah Diamond left JFS (
Feb)
Isaac Diamond (23?), Great Syn., married Jane Goldstein, settled in Bethnal Green Rd
(Jun)
• Royal Courts Of Justice open in Strand
• Leadenhall Mkt opens
• 1st trolley bus
• Triple Alliance: Germany /Italy /Austria
• Married Women’s Property Act allows them to buy /sell /own property & keep earnings
1883-93 Zyman's shop at Holywell Lane, Shoreditch
1884 • Circle Line completed (Inner Circle Railway), cable driven trams intro’d on Highgate Hill
• Machine Gun invented by Hiram Maxim (Ldn)
• 1st airship
• Fountain pen invented
1885 • Steam trams now in operation
• 1st petrol engine patented by Benz & Daimler & 1st car & motorcycle built
1886 • Putney Bridge opens
• Statue Of Liberty unveiled
• Coca-Cola invented
• William Gladstone (Lib) briefly PM again, followed by Lord Salisbury (Con)
Isaac Diamond naturalisation
1887 • Earls Court opens
• Queen Victoria’s 1st Jubilee
1888 • Jack The Ripper’s 5 murders in Spitalfields & Whitechapel (Sep)
• 1st electric tram
• Dunlop invented pneumatic bicycle tyre
• 1st cheap Kodak camera
1889 • Street lighting extended to Spitalfields after Ripper murders
• Penny slot meter introduced for domestic gas lighting
• Bicycles allowed on roads

• Woolwich Ferry starts
• Clissold Pk opens (Stoke Newington)
• LCC replaces MBW
• Paid hols began (av 1 wk)
• Eiffel Tower built

• Greenwich Mean Time introduced
1890 • Free elementary ed’n begins
1891

Rebecca (as Diamond), Amelia (27y.o. cert. teacher) & Louis Goldberg (21y.o. asst. teacher) at 36 Spital Square [Annie, 31, moved away - presumed married?]
City & S.London R’way, Stockwell-William St (1st deep level tube) opens
• Steam trams discontinued

• Boarding schools become free (no fees)
• Motion picture camera patented by Edison

• Zip fastener patented

1892 Lewis Rosenberg (Clothier) at 22 W.India Dock Rd, Limehouse
• Salisbury gives way to Gladstone as PM again ‘til 1894
1893 Annie Rosenberg (21), 22 W. India Dock Rd., married Louis Goldberg (23), (later Graham), General Outfitter, both at same address (Jun)
Lewis Rosenberg died (55), 22 W.India Dock Rd., of nephritis (
Jul)
1894 • Tower Bridge opens
Adolphus (Fito) Rosenberg born to Edward & Elisabeth
1895 • Lord Salisbury becomes PM again ‘til 1902
• Rontgen discovers x-rays
• Gillette invents safety razor
• Marconi invents wireless telegraph
Nathan Percy Graham born to Louis & Annie
1896 • 1st mass domestic lighting
• 1st modern Olympic Games held in Athens
• 1st radio
1897 • Blackwall Tunnel opens
• Tate Gallery opens
• Cars begin to appear
• 1st elec underground trains

• Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee (height of her popularity)
Claude Diamond born to Isaac & Jane
1898 • Waterloo & City line opens
• Poulsen invents magnetic sound recording
1899 • 1st public motor bus (Kensington to Victoria)
• Aspirin patented by Bayer
Edward Graham born to Louis & Annie
1900 Estella Graham born to Annie & Louis Goldberg at 45 Colvestone Cres (Sep)
• Central Line opens
• Asphalt and tar macadam become widespread

• Count von Zeppelin launches first rigid airship
• Freud publishes 1st psychoanalysis work
1901 Rebecca (reverted to Goldberg) & Amelia at 31 Colvestone Cres., Dalston
Louis (now married to Annie Rosenberg) at 45 Colvestone Cres with m-in-law Esther, 62, & b-in-law Mark Rosenberg, 26, boot clicker
Miriam Diamond's 1871 death entered into Diamond Family Bible
• Death of Queen Victoria, accession of King Edward VII
• 1st vacuum cleaner
• Roosevelt becomes 26th US Pres.
1903 • 1st electric trams run in London
1904 • 90% mortgage introduced by Halifax BS (prev max 75%)
Victor Ruben born
1905 Rebecca died of Hemiplegia after stroke at Home & Hospital for Jewish Incurables, Tottenham (Mar)
1907 NP Graham enters Classical side of City of London School (to summer 1914)
1908 • 1st Model T Ford sold
• Hoover produced 1st powered upright vacuum cleaner
1909 By now Louis & Annie at 88 Norroy Rd, Putney, with Estella (9), Percy (14), and Eddie (13), where Esther Rosenberg dies (Apr)
• Swinburne dies nearby in Putney
• Louis Bleriot flies across English Channel
1911 Alan Graham born (Nov) to Louis & Annie
1914 NP Graham to UCL Faculty of Engin'g
• WW1 hostilities commence
1915 NP Graham joins Officers' Training Corps & Royal Garrison Artillery
1916

Louis Goldberg changes family name to Graham, living at 6 Martaban Rd, Stoke
Newington
(
Jul)

NP Graham to France: Ypres, Passchendaele & Messines

1917 NP Graham invalided from army (Dec)
• King George V changes family name from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor (Summer)
1918 NP Graham re-joins UCL; becomes Editor of Union Mag
• WW1 hostilities cease
• Poland regains independence after 120 yrs of foreign rule
1919 NP Graham graduated BSc Hons Engineering & Intermed Exam in Fac of Arts, UCL
1920 By now Graham family living at 3 Heathfield Rd, Stoke Newington
NP Graham (propaganda Sec of Stoke New'ton Lab Party) corresponds with George Bernard Shaw (Mar - see below); dies at lodgings in Bolton, Lancs (Jun) as draughtsman, of encephalitis /shellshock
1921 Zyman Diamond dies Southend
Nathan Percy Graham’s poems published
1922 • Estella Graham graduates from The Slade (Univ of Lond) with Diploma In Fine Art & Portraiture
 
shaw postcard - message side
1920 postcard from George Bernard Shaw to NP Graham, re. Graham's invitation to address Stoke Newington Labour Party
shaw postcard front