Club Row Bird Fair
Tenter Ground map, 1870
Tenter Ground c.1870

1. Nathan Goldberg (names: Biblical prophet, Yiddish "Natan", "Nosn" or "Nuta" & widespread Jewish name.) Father named as Jacob in burial register. No likely naturalisation certificate found; had been in England by 1860 (Hannah's birth), in 1871 census at 9 Freeman Street, Spitalfields, just west of Commercial Street, in the Tenter Ground area (five streets cheaply built for letting out in 1820 on a former fabric stretching ground, five rooms in two stories [see Jacobus's article]; White's Row had cowshed in the 1878 sale). Freeman St RV was £16 in 1872; proprietor Abrahams (also of seven other houses); no directory entries for entire street (too poor). These streets, demolished in 1926, were occupied largely by poor Ashkenazi Jews coming from Holland in the 1850s with whom Nathan would not have had a common language.

Ordnance Survey map, 1874, (left) shows Freeman Street in the centre and the position of 65 Commercial St (built subsequently) - see Para 5e.

No definitive record has been found of Nathan's birth place, though one single entry for a "Nuta Goldberg", born 1837 in Sochocin (located 52.41' 20.28' - approx 30m NW of Warsaw), Plock Gubernia, Warszawa Province (Film 689626), is the only record so far identified as possible from Polish archives. It has been suggested that his trip from Poland (where Goldbergs proliferated) to London's Tenter Ground may have been overland via Holland, though if he found Rebecca Rogenstein in Biezun en route he could have been on his way to a northern port such as Gdansk.

1871 census entry for 9 Freeman St, Tenter Ground:
Nathan Goldberg - Head - Ladies Bagmaker - born Poland - Age 34 [so born 2 Apr 1836-7]
Rebecca - Wife - Poland - 33 [1837-8]
Hannah [later Annie] - Daughter - Scholar - Middlesex - Bishopsgate - 10 [1860-61] actually Sep '61, E. Lond.
Amelia - Daughter - Scholar - Middlesex - Spitalfields - 8 [1862-3] actually 8 May 1863
Louis - Son - infant - Middlesex - Spitalfields - 2 [1868-9] actually Jul-Sep 1869

Also in no.9 was Meyer Osterman, general dealer from Holland, his wife & two children, and their servant Catherine Francis. Neighbouring houses had up to 18 inhabitants and included numerous cigar makers from Holland (by far the commonest profession throughout the Tenter Ground area).

Nathan's "ladies bag-making" was unusual job (unique to that area); ca 70 bagmakers in '71 commercial directory but none specified as "ladies"; not known if he worked at home. He was also described in Amelia's 1863 birth registration as "bagmaker"; later as "general dealer" at his death in 1872. Nathan died of "consumption many months", not certified by a physician (presumably not affordable), registered by a non-english-writing neighbour, as 11 Feb 1872 at 9 Freeman St; burial 13 Feb arranged by Hambro Syn. (founded 1706 - one of the three old city congregations).

Nathan, son of Jacob His name is written on the Burial Authorisation in Hebrew script: "Natan ben Yakov", ie Nathan, son of Jacob, his father therefore was Jacob Goldberg. To be confirmed whether Nathan's burial at Hackney or West Ham cemetery. His wife Rebecca was then to remarry Zyman Diamond in 18 months, see para 3.

Background above:
Bird Fair, Club Row, 1868
- Zyman Diamond's street

Church Row OS map
Two possible No. 17s
shown at this time
(1888 re-numbering also

Church Row house
Sample Church Row house
(prob not original)

2. Mrs Rebecca Goldberg, widow, on 20 Aug 1873, remarried (at the Great Synagogue) the widower (of 21 months) Zyman Diamond; his name was stated as Alexander Diamond - he was known as "Yehiel (or Yechiel) Alexander the Cohen". Rebecca, unable to write in English, signed with a mark. The Chief Rabbi officiated. The address of each was stated as 17 Church Row, Bethnal Green (now re-named St Matthew's Row running south from Bethnal Green Rd. The churchyard was on east side, the small house on west side - either third south or third north of Busby Street [street now vanished] - see 1888 MBW renumbering plan, left). There was no resident listed at no.17 in 1870/3 directories, though no.18 was Birt, a paperhanger. The 1899 survey suggests a low (5-25%) proportion of Jewish residents in this area. The church, bombed & restored, survives in its green, while the 3-storey Carpenters Arms pub (indicated facing the west end of Wood Close) with original iron street name plaque (see right) is now the only remaining original house. (Sample of current housing on approx original site is shown below left.) It is unlikely they both lived here; they were evidently living near each other (cf 1871 census returns).

Rebecca was in England in 1855 (her United Syn Burial Authorisation), was said by Victor Ruben to be an ex-head teacher of a Jewish school in the East End (7 possible ones listed in Jewish Yearbook 1897, but no records extant), and to have been chosen as a strict step-mother to Zyman's dtr Sarah (aged ca 5) and taught Sarah deportment. She did not stay with Zyman but returned to her own children by 1881 - see below. She was born Poland Aug 1833-4 per her marriage ca 1835 in the 1881 & '91 censuses (so 5-7 yrs older than Zyman). Her first name would have been "Rivke" in Yiddish, maiden surname was (at Amelia's birth) Reubenstein.
[Similar versions eg Rubenstajn /-styn in Poland; unusual variant of not uncommon Rubenstein (precious stones were said to be chosen when surnames were selected because of 12 stones in chief priest's breastplate) for which the Jewish encyclopaedias have 19c biogs from Russia & Austria, some family records in Jerusalem; Polish records, noted below, identify a likely family.]

Her surname was later recorded as Rogenstein in her (second) marriage certificate, where her father was recorded as Abraham Rogenstein. No R(e)ubenstein birth has been found in Poland with her known first name(s) around 1833-5. The only Rogenstein family recorded as living in Poland at the time of her birth fits with a family living in Biezun, Plock Gubernia, Warszawa Province, located approx 60m NW of Warsaw (52.58' 19.55'). Rebecca's London (Plashet) gravestone (photo Para. 6) records her Hebrew name as Bina Rivke Goldberg, daughter of Abraham; the Biezun birth is recorded as Bidne Ryfke Rogenstein (1833) born to Abram Moszek Rogenstein (age 56) and Hena Jakubow (age 37) - ref. 730157. This seems to fit, but proof still required, and an explanation of why the Reubenstein /Rogenstein name variation might have occurred. (See also footnote to Para. 6.)

Rebecca was surnamed Diamond in 1881 and 1891 censuses but reverted to Goldberg in 1901, described herself as born "Poland (Nat)" presumably referring to a naturalisation acquired through her second husband Zyman, as none is traced for Nathan in the NA index, and as "Traveller wife" in 1881 census - Zyman (a turner, not a pedlar) although now her husband was not present then nor thereafter with her; he was in London Jul 1879 at the death of his daughter Leah (see JC notice) and said to have been travelling in South Africa in 1880-82. (Cf other 1871/81 census entries: 'Hawker in jewellery wife', 'Retired Jeweller wife', 'Tailor wife'.)

Carpenters Arms, Church Row
Above: Carpenters Arms
showing (close-up below) new and old street names

Church Row roadsign

Zyman DiamondZyman Diamond c.1915

3. Zyman Diamond was born in Warsaw May 1842 (per his Naturalisation Petition in 1896), or 1839-40 (marriage reg'n 1871 & 1901 UK census returns). Zyman's first wife's name was remembered as Miriam by his grandsons Claude Diamond and Victor Ruben who said she died after Sarah's birth probably 1868-9 per 1871 census (otherwise variously dated to 1868-74; no birth on grave); her death handwritten as Jewish date (=Nov 1870) in the family bible is wrong:

(It was inserted after 1901 and should have read one year later.) Two granddaughters were named "Miriam". She was residing, anglicized as Mary (not unusual then in Anglo-Jewry, English version, via Maria, of Miriam) in 1871 at 9 Gascoigne Place (named after 18c landowner, also spelt 'Gascoyne', as used by the census taker), Bethnal Green, north of Virginia Row, a modest road with houses 12 ft wide, each with a yard at rear; No.9 on east side, no entries in street directory, a single proprietor for the street in 1871 tax record, Rateable Value (RV) £12 in 1878; the east side terrace housing and PH on Virginia Row survive as rebuilt by 1894, Columbia market just to north was opened 1869 but shunned by local residents, Crab Tree Row renamed Columbia Row, and the courts behind "in a wretched condition" redeveloped in 1871, the name Brick Lane extended northwards (see VCH), the area again redeveloped after WW2;

1871 census return, with wife and three children:
Simon Diamond - Head - Married - Wood Turner - b. Poland - Age 31 [2 Apr 1839-40]
Mary - Wife - b. Warsaw - 30 [1840-41]
Leah - Daughter - b. Warsaw - 16 [1854-55; died in Asylum 1879]
Isaac - Son - b. Warsaw - 13 [1857-58; to marry Jane Goldstein]
Sarah - Daughter - b. England - 2 [1868-9; (act. 17/6/69) to marry Morris Ruben]

Gascoigne Place map
9 Gascoigne Place, sth of Crabtree Row (now Columbia Row), and the house
as it is today. Click map for enlargement.

In 1877 Zyman is in directory at 5 Club Row, north off Bethnal Green Rd (Club Row Bird Fair depicted in page header background) when Sarah was admitted in March to the Jewish Free School (JFS) ; as occupier "Zymond Diamond" in 1878 rate book (no property owner named), RV £42 (neighbours only £16); by Jul 1879 in Bateman's Row off Shoreditch High St.

Isaac DiamondZyman's son
Isaac Diamond c.1915


4. These people were among the steady flow of Jews who came to England before the great number who immigrated from 1880; reasons for this in Tsar Alexander II's reign include (as given by Rollins) the 1855 Russian defeat in the Crimea and 1863 defeat by Russia of Polish uprising; most of the men took to industry rather than the traditional retailing. Economic betterment and avoidance of military service were important influences. By 1800 many richer Jews had moved from the E. End, their place taken by poor immigrants living in or near the slum alleys and courts between Houndsditch (where Mayhew noted Jewish shops & mfrs in 1861) and "Petticoat Lane" old clothes market where Jewish second-hand dealers traded; Jews gradually took over entire streets (eg Naggar Ch 3).


Devonshire Square
Devonshire Sq 2004
converted from E. India Warehouse












65 Commercial St
65 Commercial St









31 Colvestone Cres
31 Colvestone Cres

5. Rebecca was living at:
(a) 1 Ebenezer Sq. (Portsoken Ward, City) with Nathan at Amelia's birth in 1863. (A circumcision was recorded in the sq in 1818, the first schoolroom of the Jewish Free School was leased here in 1817, and Jews were in the sq. in 1841 census and other dates from 1836, incl Cohen at No.2. in 1861. The sq had two parts, opening by a passageway into Meeting House Yard; it was formed in 1799, a sewer was laid in 1843, a 16 ft square without rear yard, in a poor area, overshadowed by the massive E. India Warehouse, some surviving though now converted to residence and re-named Devonshire Square (see left) just within the City. The surviving parish rate book of 1859 notes Joseph Lipman as paying the 5 shillings annual rate, in 1861 census a family of Lipman, a traveller at no.1; the 1863 land tax assessment gives occupiers of the entire court as unnamed "weekly tenants"; but in 1863 there were several householders, presumably owners or lessees, registered as parliamentary electors, mainly Jewish sounding names but not at no.1; it was demolished in 1884 for Artizan's Street and Dwelling, houses. Off that Yard also opened Saddlers Hall Court where Jane Goldstein was born in 1859. (In 1881 she married Isaac Diamond; one may surmise a link between Goldsteins and Goldbergs if there at the same time, so did they keep in touch when both moved away - Goldsteins by 1860 went south to Ellen St?)

(b) 9 Freeman St, 1871, see previous para 1.

(c) 17 Church Row, 1873 at second marriage, see para 2.

(d) 5 Club Row, up to/including 1878-1880 according to Jewish Free School admission registers, where her daughter Amelia Goldberg is listed as being a pupil from Sep 1878-1880, with her step-sister Sarah Diamond a pupil from 1877-82. Sarah was listed as also living at this address with her father Zyman. This is therefore the only address we can presume that Rebecca and Zyman shared at the outset of their marriage, though later censuses show that they soon parted. According to JFS records Amelia had previously been at school at the Jews' Hospital, founded in 1807 at Mile End and which moved to Norwood in 1863. (The Jews' Orphan Asylum had been founded at Tenter Ground, Goodman's Fields, in 1831 and the two institutions amalgamated in 1876 as the Jews' Hospital and Orphan Asylum, later the Norwood Jewish Children's Society or more commonly 'Norwood'.) So it seems that she was sent away to Norwood, in school term at least, before the age of 15 (pre-Sep 78), though we don't yet know for how long.

(e) 65 Commercial St. (in southern part, opened in 1845); opposite to Flower & Dean St., on west side, midway between Wentworth St (Jews' Infant School on corner) & Whites Row; near Freeman St – (see map in para 1).

Census March 1881 (directory entry 1877 none, 1882: David Crook, piece broker)
Rebecca Diamond - Head - Married - (Nat. ) Poland - Traveller wife - 46 [so born 1834-5]
Amelia Goldberg - Daughter - Spitalfield, Middx - Pupil Teacher - 17 [act. 8 May 1863]
Louis Goldberg - Son - Scholar - 11 [1869]
["Louis" is French version of the Celtic "Lewis", probably from the Yiddish "Leib" from Ger. Loewe (lion), connected to Heb. for lion.

(f) 36 Spital Sq on edge of City Of London in the Liberty of Norton Folgate (red boundary below) where they ocupied four rooms. (Named from 12th c. priory hospital, occupied by silk weavers in 18th c; inhabitants not many foreign-born and these not Jewish names; extra gas street lights installed in 1888 after "Ripper" murders. From 1885 Isaac was member of German Syn which erected a building in the sq. half a mile from Isaac's home at Bethnal Gr Rd.) A four storey house, on south side, one house from Spital Yard. No.37 (now SPAB - Society for Protection of Ancient Buildings), survives from 1733. (The large late 17th c. or early 18th c. mansion, originally no.34, was divided into two residences ca 1830, being renumbered 34 & 35, while the former nos 35, 36 & 37 were each renumbered one higher to 36, 37 & 38 respectively in the 1820s. No.36 looks like a late 19th c. commercial development, difficult to date on stylistic grounds, a hoist hinged outside on 1st flr; interior modern; to east of no.36 a former church hall still remains.

Census 5th April 1891: (directory entry: 1892, Wolf Davis, fringe manufacturer.)
Rebecca Diamond - Head - Married - Poland - 56
Amelia Goldberg - Daughter - Single - London, St Botolphs - Certificated Teacher - 27
Louis Goldberg - Son - Single - St Botolphs - Assistant teacher - 21

36 Spital Square
36 Spital Square, just west of Spitalfields Market, east of Bishopsgate.
One of few remaining original buildings now recently refurbished. Click to enlarge.

Hannah/Annie is not indexed in 1881 census probably now married [the names GOLDBERG Harris were noted on her 1892 tombstone - possible marriage to be followed up]. Since Rebecca was by the 1881 census not with Zyman, it seems they soon separated after the 1873 marriage (& see para 6 below).

In 31 Mar 1901 Census she was named Rebecca Goldberg (70 !), no longer wanting to be known as Zyman's wife (he was now in Holywell Lane), living with Amelia (35) in Dalston, Hackney ("the first step upwards for the Whitechapel Jew" – Booth), in

(g) 31 Colvestone Crescent. (just built by 1891 census) together with a Goldsmith family, a 4-storey terrace, just seven doors from her son Louis Goldberg and his family living at No.45 and less than half a mile's walk from Isaac Diamond and his family in "solidly prosperous" Graham Road (there by 1895). Also in No 45 as another household were Esther Rosenberg (Annie's widowed mother, age 62) & her son Mark Rosenberg, 26 (a boot clicker - who cut up leather for making boots; a skilled trade). In the 1903 street directory the Goldbergs do not have entries as householders at either No 31 (Daniel Goldsmith is named) or 45 (Isidore Jacobs), so presumably they were tenants/lodgers, unlike Isaac in Graham Road. (Several other Jewish named families were in that street, from the JC birth notices in 1893-4, eg at nos 18 & 38.)

(h) by 1905 The Home & Hospital for Jewish Incurables, Tottenham (founded 1888). When the original building at Victoria Park Road had become unsuitable in 1898, patients were moved to Berthons, Wood Street, Walthamstow, and the lease of the old property was sold. In 1896 the Board of Management purchased four acres of land in High Road, Tottenham, where there was a local Jewish population. After building work this new Home was opened on 3 July 1903 by Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll. It is not yet known if Rebecca was resident at former addresses. (Southampton University Library holds registers - visit pending).

Ebenezer Sq map
Ebenezer Sq OS map

Spitalfields map
Spitalfields in 19th C.
(Click map to enlarge)




















45 Colvestone Cres
45 Colvestone Cres

Rebecca's gravestone
"Bina Rivke Goldberg, daughter of Abraham"

6. At Sarah's wedding in 1892, the JC notice refers merely to Sarah as "only daughter of Z. Diamond", his wife then being ignored. In 1901 census, at Holywell Lane Zyman said he was 61, married (he was alone in household, his wife not with him).
Donors to the Jewish Board of Guardians 1899-1904 include a Mrs Goldberg or Mrs R. Goldberg giving half a guinea. Rebecca was in the Tottenham Home at her death in 1905. She died of Paralysis (per Burial auth'n)/ Hemiplegia (Death certificate) presumably after a stroke, perhaps at her previous address.

Two notices followed her death in the JC issue of 31 Mar, 1905:

JC death notices

So her address at death was still officially at No 31 according to her 3 children & the burial auth'n. She was separated from Zyman (65, then at Graham Road), but he cared enough to insert a separate notice (date of death incorrect; he was less Jewishly knowledgeable than her children); a Shiva (mourning prayers) was held at both Sarah's and Amelia's homes. No probate was granted. She was buried on 27 March in the United Synagogue's Plashet cemetery, at East Ham, Plot F5/16; as a member (like Isaac) of Stoke Newington Syn. (seating 750, opened in 1903 when it had 221 seat-holders; it was in Shacklewell Lane, just north of Graham Rd). She has a good quality, well preserved gravestone (see left) named thereupon as "Binah (Hebrew inscription) Rebecca Goldberg, daughter of Abraham, wife of the late Nathan Goldberg".
(Zyman died 15 years later in 1920, buried in Edmonton cemetery. His memorial, erected in 1921 (see right), makes no mention of Rebecca, nor his first wife Miriam. The inscription says he was also mourned by unspecified "relatives" which could include Rebecca's own descendants. Miriam Ruben was also buried in Plashet, J 1/3, in 1908.)

Rebecca largely forgotten: Although Flora and Claude Diamond were born in 1894 and 1897 respectively they should have heard from their grandfather Zyman about this later wife, their step-grandmother, and should have met her. However only Victor Ruben, born 1903, had a vague knowledge of her and she was not spoken of by Zyman's children Isaac nor Sarah (Sarah being Victor's mother).
The only other documented recollection was from her own direct descendant Estella Graham who related the story that at her own birth she had nearly died from congestion and after her mother Annie had puffed steam into her lungs all night the doctor declared she was going to live. So her father Lou set out to register the birth, only to be confronted by, as Estella recalled, "that wretched woman (who) rushed up saying my name was to be Rivke Bina". Annie replied, "The child's name is Estella." It was clear Rebecca (aka Bina Rivke or Rivke Bina) wanted to have her granddaughter named after her. Annie and Lou decided that as a compromise they would insert the middle name 'Bessie' which they thought looked or sounded a bit like 'Bina'. Hence her full name Estella Bessie Graham (also see Para. 9).

Footnote from Rabbi Mark Solomon: 'Binah' would have been Rebecca's first Hebrew name, meaning 'understanding'. The hebrew letter 'mem' in front of it stands for the honorific 'Marat' meaning 'mistress'. 'Binah Rivkah' sounds like a slightly unusual combination, but not remarkably, so either she was given this name from the outset or Binah was added later due to a childhood illness (although 'Chayah' was more usual.) It is noted that Binah is not spelt with a 'heh' at the end, like the hebrew for 'understanding', but with an 'alef', Yiddish fashion. It is not certain whether this is the hebrew word with a yiddishised spelling or an unrelated similar Yiddish woman's name. Kolatch Dictionary: Bina from hebrew for 'knowledge', akin to Buna. Gorr says: Bina & Bineh come from the spanish name 'Bunah', itself from the spanish word buena=good; this diminutive form has no connection with the hebrew name Binah which means 'understanding' and is simply a phonetic coincidence.

Zyman's gravestone
"...mourned by...relatives and friends"






Louis (Goldberg) Graham
Louis (Goldberg) Graham c. 1913

7. Louis Goldberg, Rebecca and Nathan's son, had varied occupations, an assistant teacher at 21, general outfitter at 23, outfitter at 24, rent collector at 31, then a manager at a cabinet maker's at 47, was known to have been employed by Victor's father Morris Ruben (employing up to 200 workers in Shoreditch) - another link between the families, and at 50 a factory manager. Louis married on 27 June 1893, age stated as 23 (b. 3rd quarter of 1869), in the New Synagogue, Annie Rosenberg of 22 West India Dock Rd, Limehouse, Stepney, aged 21. (This road was completed in 1810 to link the docks to Commercial Rd. and was not a Jewish area; most of the inhabitants serviced the docks.) Louis changed his surname to GRAHAM in an advertisement in the London Gazette in 1916, during WW1 (see below); his children also adopted this name. His death not yet known.

Louis name change 1916

Lewis Rosenberg gravestone
Louis & Esther
memorial stone

8. Louis Rosenberg (aka Lewis), was Annie's father; he, a tailor of 30 Cable St, married in Mar 1862 at Great Synagogue Chambers, aged 25 [so born 1836-7] Esther Isaacs, also 25, of Short St, Spitalfields; both unable to write in English and so signed Register with a mark (as with her mother-in-law Rebecca in 1873). He was naturalized by petition of 18 Feb 1868, having resided in England for "at least ten years" (so arrived 1858 or before), which was signed in Yiddish:-

It is believed that this signature ends with the additional name "Yitzak", while his headstone reads "Yehuda Leib son of Michael". He was described as an Outfitter, aged 30, born 1838, and a native of Lenczicz in Poland acc'g to this naturalisation cert. This town appears on 1814 map (below) as Lencicz, known in Yiddish as Lenczyc (now Leczyca, a medieval town in Lodz Province 70+ miles west of Warsaw, 52.04' 19.13'). The Jewish cemetery there is now covered over with houses though three gravestones reportedly have been preserved in the town's museum. There is no Jewish population today as all were deported or fled during WW2. (See history page.) It should be noted that there were several towns by this name, so although the location is by no means definite it is currently the most likely.

Poland 1814 (complete)
In 1793 w. Mazovia was seized from Poland by Prussia. Lencicz (L. of centre) became part of the Congress K'dom of Poland under Russian rule 'til WW1.
~ Click to view full map (large file) ~

According to this naturalisation petition he had two children at this time, had lived 7 yrs at 6 Cable St, St Mary, Whitechapel as Lewis, Outfitter; was at 30 Cable St at the time of his marriage (Mar 1862) and listed in directories as Outfitter, 18 Cable St, Wellclose Sq., 1871-82 (address is obscure, the sq. is not on the st. but at rear), & Clothier, 22 W. India Dock Rd, 1892; also directory as Lewis, Clothier, at 22 W.India Dock Rd and Clothier at above marriage and in his probate; he (presumably seriously ill at the time of her wedding), died a week after Annie's marriage, aged 55 (56 in Burial Auth'n) of nephritis on 4 July 1893 [JC "In Memorial" notice for Lewis, "not forgotten", unsigned, 1894], buried W. Ham F12/04, a tall monument topped by an urn, inscribed "Lewis Rosenberg mourned by wife, children, relatives and friends"; member Poplar Syn., effects £284, grant to widow Esther and son Eliasz Rosenberg (one of 3 brothers, a witness at the wedding), fruiterer.

His wife Esther died 24 April 1909, at 88 Norroy Rd, Putney. (Estella remembered living with her own parents at this house, walking daily to school across the High Street, and frequently seeing the poet Swinburne taking his daily constitutional from Putney Heath to Wimbledon Common - Swinburne himself dying just 14 days before Esther. She also recalled The Green Man public house, drinking ginger beer in the sun, and flying a kite while her father, Louis Goldberg, played billiards inside; subsequently joining the children at play until the walk down the hill home for dinner. She said that during Esther's illness neighbours respectfully laid straw on the cobbled street to quieten the sound of passing horses' hooves and the accompanying carriages.) Esther's effects were valued at £24 (compare the estates of Isaac: £1,221 in 1921; Jane: £8,421 in 1928; Suchar: no probate in 1901). She was buried adjacent to Louis (same headstone) plot 05; member New Synagogue.
Plashet and West Ham are closed cemeteries and can only be visited by appointment. Their joint memorial is still in very good condition (see left). Hebrew on headstone translates as: "Yehuda Leib, son of Michael".

Louis Rosenberg
Louis Rosenberg
in Berlin

6 Cable St
6 Cable St in 2004

Nathan Percy Graham portrait
Percy Graham, 1920,
a posthumous portrait
by Estella Graham

9. Nathan Percy Graham (known as "Percy" - link to biography) was Louis & Annie's eldest son (grandson of Rebecca), born Limehouse, August 1895, engineer by profession but had literary ability; died from effects of war service. Was awarded British War Medal, Victory Medal and Silver War Badge.

Percy's war medalsPercy's medals: Silver War Badge (right) awarded during his lifetime; British War Medal (left) and Victory Medal (centre) were returned to War Office unclaimed as he had already died and family presumably moved. Roll mouse over image to see reverse or click for background info.

Poems privately published posthumously (with a brief memoir by Dr Benjamin I. Evans), d 20 Jun 1920, probate address 3 Heathfield Rd, Stoke Newington, effects £121, administration to his father Louis Graham, factory manager. Victor Ruben had copy of this book, bequeathed to Bryan Diamond (presumably from Victor's father Morris who had employed Percy's father Louis) which reconfirms this relationship. Percy's siblings were Edward (Eddie), Estella (Stella) (1900-96, illustrated the book of poems) and Alan (1911-58, died suddenly of meningitis, buried at East Ham, XC 8/688), who married a Roman Catholic, Patricia Ferguson, and had two children (raised by their surviving mother in the Catholic faith): Janet (b.1952) and Philip Graham (b.1955).

The Graham Family c.1918
Graham family c.1918
Back row l-r: Percy, Stella, Eddie. Front: Louis, Alan, Annie



Personal communications:
- Victor Ruben ca 1970-95
- Claude Diamond ca 1970-90
- Estella Graham ca 1985-1996, including taped conversations 1993

JGSGB mailbase communications:
- Prof. Judith Romney Wegner re name "Leib"
- Rosemary Wenzerul re Ebenezer Square Jewish residents
- Harold Pollins re wives designations in censuses
- Aubrey Jacobus, "The Ashkenazi Dutch Immigrant Community in Spitalfields Mid 19th Century", talk to JGSGB Anglo SIG, May 2004, an earlier Shemot article and emails

• Manuscripts
- Family bible of Flora Diamond – deaths
- "The Poems of N. P. Graham," privately printed, Bristol, 1921

• Archives:
- Census of England & Wales:
1841: abstracts of Jewish-named residents in Ebenezer Sq., JGSGB Library, pamphlets
1861: RG9 210 /18 p1 (Ebenezer Sq)
1871: RG10/475/50 p28 (Gascoyne Ter.); RG10/50 9/32 p23 (Freeman St)
1881: RG11 0436/4 p2 (Commercial St); RG11/0394/6 p5 (Hoxton Sq)
1891: RG12/275/83 p30 (Spital Sq)
1901: RG13 222/63/17/104 (Colvestone Cresc) - No. 31, Rebecca, No 45 Louis
- Court Service, Probate Dept (Principal registry of Family Division), indexes 1893, 1905 /09 /20
- Guildhall Library, City of London Land tax assessment 1863 & 4, MS 113/6/453 & 454 , Portsoken Ward Parish rate, St Botolph Aldgate, Houndsditch precinct, Sept 1859, MS 2545/65
- Land tax returns, MS 6020/13 p52 1871/2 Gascoigne Pl & 6008A/10 p67 1872/3 Freeman St
- London Metropolitan Archive, film X 091/18, MBW renumbering order in 1888 & plan No 3983, Church Row
- Tower Hamlets Archive, St Matthew Bethnal Green Parish Rate Book 1878, BG 268 (Club Row), 269( Gasc Pl) Notices of Intended Marriage, Bethnal Green, 1873 (given 29 July)
- General Register Office:
Births: Amelia GOLDBERG 1863, Nathan Percy GOLDBERG 1895
Marriage: Louis GOLDBERG & Annie ROSENBERG 1893, Alexander DIAMOND & Rebecca
Deaths: Nathan
Births index: 1869, Louis GOLDBERG

- Index to Naturalisations and Denizations,
- JewishGenJRI website Poland Film no.730157
- HO 1/146/5691, Naturalization, Louis Rosenberg
- Burial Society of The United Synagogue, lists of burials, Burial Authorisations Nos. 401, 581, 847.
- Archive of the Chief Rabbi, Marriage Registration, Louis Rosenberg & Esther Isaacs, Burial register 13 Feb 1872, Nathan Goldberg
- Myer Solomon's Circumcision Register (re 1818 Ebenezer Square)
- Univ. of Southampton Library, Special Collections, Jewish archives,
MS 284, Papers of the Home & Hospital for Jewish Incurables, Tottenham.

• Periodicals:
- Genealogists' Magazine, Sep 1992, p87, Jewish Marriages & Divorces in England until 1940, Charles Tucker
- Jewish Chronicle notices of birth in issues dated 27.7 1894, 2.8 1901, deaths 31.8.1905, in memoriam 27.7 1894
- London Gazette, 25 Jul 1916 , p7381– change of name
- Shemot, Vol.7,1 pp34-39, The Dutch Ashkenazi community in Spitalfields in the 19th c., Aubrey Jacobus
- Heritage: An Historical Series on the Jews of North London, No1, 1982, "The Jews of Tottenham before the Great War", Jeffrey & Barbara Baum (re the Jewish residents around the Home; has picture)
- Board of Guardians for the relief of the Jewish Poor, Annual reports, London 1899-1905
- Kelly's Post Office Directory of London, Streets and Commercial sections from 1871

• Books: & other publications:
- Certificates of Naturalisation 1844-1900 under Acts of 1844 and 1870, Index to Names, HMSO, 1908
- The Register of Persons Entitled to Vote in the Election of Members of Parliament for the City of London..1863-4, 1863
- BLACK, Gerry, J.F.S: The History of the Jews' Free School, London, since 1732, 1998 (pl xxxv)
- BOOTH, Charles, Life & Labour of the People in London, iii(4), p152 re Jews in Dalston
- COWAN, Anne & Roger, Victorian Jews Through British Eyes, 1986 (p98 pic of JFS Hall, p121 Soup Kitchen)
- GORR, Shumel, Jewish Personal Names: Their Origin, Derivation & Diminutive Forms, Avotaynu, 1992 (re 'Bina')

- FISHMAN, Wm. J., East End 1888: A year in a London borough among the labouring poor, 1988; p224 cites London Advertiser 18 Aug 18888 re gas lights.
- KOLATCH, Alfred J, Complete Dictionary of English & Hebrew First Names, NY, 1984
- LEVIN, Salomon s, Changing Pattern of Jewish Education, in 'A Century of Anglo-Jewish Life 1870-1970 (1971?), at p58
- LCC, List of the Streets & Places within the Administrative County of London, 1901
- MARKS, Lara, Carers & Servers of the Jewish Community: The Marginalized Heritage of Jewish Women in Britain, in KUSHNER, Tony (ed), The Jewish Heritage in British History, 1992 at p106
- MAYHEW, Henry, London Labour and the London Poor, revised 1861
- NAGGAR, Betty, Jewish Pedlars and Hawkers 1740-1940, 1992 (refers to immigration, move out from center, old clothes dealers, Zangwill story, and bags for clothes)
- NISSEL, Muriel, People Count: A history of the General Register Office, HMSO, 1987, pp25-6 (births)
- OLDLAND, Fr John, A History of the Parish & Church of St Matthew Bethnal Green, pamphlet, 1989
- ROLLINS, A. R., "Russo-Jewish Immigrants in England before 1881", Trans. JHSE XXI, p202, 1968
- ROTTENBERG, Dan, Finding Our Fathers: A Guide to Jewish Genealogy, NY, 1977, p329 (Rubinstein)
- TAYLOR, Rosemary & C Lloyd, The East End at Work, Tower Hamlets Local History Library, 1999 (p96, pic of Club Row Bird Fair)

- WEINREB, Ben & C. HIBBERT, The London Encyclopaedia, 1992
- Victoria County History of Middlesex, Vol 9, Bethnal Green, 1998, pp109 & 159, Vol 10, Hackney, 1995, pp14 & 32
- Jewish East London: coloured map of population as at 1899, by George Arkell, in "The Jew in London" by Russell & Lewis, 1901
- Stanford’s Library Map of London and its suburbs 1862, reprinted MOTCO 2001
- Ordnance Survey Map of London, 5 inch, 1874, London/Middx, Sheets VII 47 & 67, 1898, sheet LXIII (Shoreditch)
- Parish of Bethnal Green map, 1848 (Gascoigne Place)
John Snow's map of London 1859 (Church Row)

- Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB), "A Guide to 37 Spital Square London", leaflet nd ca 1998

Link to genealogical chart abstracted from full DIAMOND & GOLDBERG data to show persons mentioned here.